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# Contents

## Idea

In type theory, induction-recursion is a principle for mutually defining types of the form

$A \colon Type\,,\;\;\; and \;\;\; B \colon A \to Type \,,$

where $A$ is defined as an inductive type and $B$ is defined by recursion on $A$. Crucially, the definition of $A$ may use $B$. Without this last requirement, we could first define $A$ and then separately $B$.

## Example

The universe a la Tarski is an example of an inductive-recursive definition, where a set $U$ is defined inductively together with a recursive function $T: U \to Set$. The constructors for $U$ may depend negatively on $T$ applied to elements of $U$, as is the case if $U$, for example, is closed under dependent function spaces:
$\frac{a:U \;\;\;\;\;\;b : T(a) \to U}{\pi(a, b) : U}$
with $T(\pi(a, b)) = \prod_{x:T(a)} T(b(x))$.
Here, $T:U \to Set$ is defined recursively. Sometimes, however, one might not want to give $T(u)$ completely as soon as $u:U$ is introduced, but instead define $T$ inductively as well. This is the principle of induction-induction.