see also algebraic topology, functional analysis and homotopy theory
topological space (see also locale)
fiber space, space attachment
Kolmogorov space, Hausdorff space, regular space, normal space
sequentially compact, countably compact, locally compact, sigma-compact, paracompact, countably paracompact, strongly compact
subsets are closed in a closed subspace precisely if they are closed in the ambient space
closed subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are equivalently compact subspaces
open subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are locally compact
compact spaces equivalently have converging subnet of every net
paracompact Hausdorff spaces equivalently admit subordinate partitions of unity
injective proper maps to locally compact spaces are equivalently the closed embeddings
Theorems
A profinite set is a pro-object in FinSet. By Stone duality these are equivalent to Stone spaces and thus are often called profinite spaces. So these are compact Hausdorff totally disconnected topological spaces.
These are precisely the spaces which are small cofiltered limits of finite discrete spaces, and moreover (as a consequence of Stone duality) the category of Stone spaces is equivalent to the category $pro(FinSet)$ of pro-objects in FinSet and finite sets sit $FinSet\hookrightarrow pro(FinSet)$ as finite discrete spaces. This is especially common when talking about profinite groups and related topics.
An internal group in the category of Stone spaces / profinite spaces and continuous maps is a profinite group.
Just as the term ‘space’ is used by some schools of algebraic topologists as a synonym for simplicial set, so ‘profinite space’ is sometimes used as meaning a ‘simplicial object in the category of compact and totally disconnected topological spaces’, i.e. in the other terminology a ‘simplicial profinite space’. This is further complicated by the question of whether or not pro(finite simplicial sets) and simplicial profinite spaces are the same thing.
The primary meaning (as Stone space) is used in sources on profinite groups, for which see the entries Stone space, profinite group.
Discussion of homotopy theory of pro(finite) simplicial sets is in
G. Quick, Profinite homotopy theory, Documenta Mathematica, 13, (2008), 585–612, (Archiv 0803.4082)
Jacob Lurie, Profinite spaces (pdf)