black hole spacetimes | vanishing angular momentum | positive angular momentum |
---|---|---|

vanishing charge | Schwarzschild spacetime | Kerr spacetime |

positive charge | Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime | Kerr-Newman spacetime |

In perturbative quantum gravity, the *soft graviton theorem* (Weinberg 65) re-formulates scattering amplitudes of a set of finite energy external particles with one or more low energy external gravitons, in terms of the amplitude without the low energy gravitons.

In the classical limit, there is a different manifestation of the same theorem (Saha-Sahoo-Sen 19): here it determines the low frequency component of the gravitational wave-form produced during a scattering process in terms of the momenta and spin of the incoming and outgoing objects, without any reference to the interactions responsible for the scattering.

Original reference:

- Steven Weinberg,
*Infrared photons and gravitons*, Phys. Rev. 140, B516 (1965) (doi:10.1103/PhysRev.140.B516)

Review with focus on photons in electromagnetism:

- Noah Miller,
*From Noether’s Theorem to Bremsstrahlung: a pedagogical introduction to large gauge transformations and classical soft theorems*(arXiv:2112.05289)

See also:

- Martin Beneke, Patrick Hager, Robert Szafron,
*Soft-Collinear Gravity and Soft Theorems*, in section*Effective Quantum Gravity*of*Handbook of Quantum Gravity*, Springer (2023) [arXiv:2210.09336]

Discussion of application to gravitational waves in the classical limit:

- Arnab Priya Saha, Biswajit Sahoo, Ashoke Sen,
*Proof of the Classical Soft Graviton Theorem in $D=4$*(arXiv:1912.06413)

Discussion in the BFSS matrix model:

- Noah Miller, Andrew Strominger, Adam Tropper, Tianli Wang,
*Soft Gravitons in the BFSS Matrix Model*[arXiv:2208.14547]

Analogous discussion for gluons:

- Peng Cheng, Pujian Mao,
*Soft gluon theorems in curved spacetime*[arXiv:2211.00031]

Last revised on November 2, 2022 at 04:15:36. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.