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# Contents

## Idea

The flavor of modal logic called $K$ is propositional logic equipped with a single modality usually written “$\Box$” subject to the rules that for all propositions $p, q \colon Prop$ we have

• $\Box K \colon \Box(p \to q) \to (\Box p \to \Box q)$ (K modal logic)

Often one adds to this the following further axioms

• $\Box T \colon \Box p \to p$ (T modal logic)

• $\Box 4 \colon \Box p \to \Box \Box p$. (S4 modal logic).

$K$ is the basic epistemic logic.

## Properties

### Axiomatisation

• (Taut) All (instances of ) propositional tautologies.

• For each $i = 1,\ldots, m$, the axiom, ($K_i$):

$(K_i\phi \wedge K_i(\phi \to \psi))\to K_i\psi.$

### Derivation rules

• (MP)
$\frac{\phi \quad \phi\to \psi}{\psi} \quad$

(i.e. modus ponens);

• (Generalisation)
$\frac{\phi}{K_i\phi}.$

The second deduction rule corresponds to the idea that if a statement has been proved, then it is known to all ‘agents’.

### Normality

This logic is the smallest normal modal logic.

## Semantics

The semantics of $K_{(m)}$ is just the Kripke semantics of this context, so a frame, $\mathfrak{F}$ is just a set, $W$ of possible worlds with $m$ relations $R_i$. A model, $\mathfrak{M} = (\mathfrak{F},V)$, is a frame in that sense together with a valuation, $V \colon Prop \to \mathcal{P}(W)$, and the satisfaction relation is as described in geometric models for modal logics with just the difference implied by the fact that that page correspond to the use of $\Diamond_i = M_i$ whilst this uses $K_i$. This means that

• $\mathfrak{M},w \models K_i \phi$ if and only if, for all $v \in W$ such that $R_i w v$, $\mathfrak{M},v \models \phi$.
type of modal logicrelation in its Kripke frames
K modal logicany relation
K4 modal logic?transitive relation
T modal logicreflexive relation
B modal logic?symmetric relation
S4 modal logicreflexive & transitive relation
S5 modal logicequivalence relation

## References

The notation “K” for a modal operator meant to express epistemic modality originates with:

Last revised on August 1, 2023 at 10:46:51. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.