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The standard model of cosmology including dark energy and dark matter is in very good agreement with observation on scales above those of galaxies, but in its standard version becomes problematic below this scale (there are variants that address this, such as fuzzy dark matter).
Curiously though, the particular behaviour of experimental data on these “small” cosmological scales turns out to have a remarkably simple and universal phenomenological fit by a simple modification of the force law of Newtonian mechanics (“Newton’s third law”, corrections from general relativity are typically very small for the effects in question).
MOND is the abbreviation for this modified Newtonian dynamics (Milgrom 83 a, Milgrom 83 b, Milgrom 83 c). This refers to the proposal of modifying Newton’s third law
relating the force experienced by a body of mass $m$ to its acceleration $a$ by an expression of the form
for some acceleration scale $a_0$ and some interpolating function $\mu \colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$.
The motivation is that choosing the constant $a_0$ and the function $\mu$ suitably, then such a modified formula fits the rotation-velocities of observed galaxies in dependence of the radius remarkably well, something which the standard model of cosmology with dark matter still has some problems with (but see Kaplinghat-Turner 02, BLSF 09, Chan 13).
Of course an ad-hoc such modification of the basic laws of physics breaks many established properties of physics, such as the principle of equivalence in general relativity and various conservation laws. It must be that this modified Newtonian force law is the effect of some more fundamental theory. The only proposal for such a theory apart from gravity+dark matter itself (Kaplinghat-Turner 02, BLSF 09, Chan 13) is to add to Einstein gravity a unit vector field and a scalar field (Bekenstein 04, “TeVeS”), themselves thus otherwise unobserved “dark fields”, as it were, but, as opposed to say the axion dark matter candidate, not motivated beyond the desire to fit galaxy rotation curves.
From Bekenstein 04, p. 9 one sees explicitly that TeVeS is just Einstein-gravity coupled to peculiar “matter” fields:
The concept of MOND is due to
Mordehai Milgrom, A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis, Astrophysical Journal. 270: 365–370. (1983) doi:10.1086/161130.
Mordehai Milgrom, A modification of the Newtonian dynamics - Implications for galaxies, Astrophysical Journal. 270: 371–389. (1983) doi:10.1086/161131.
Mordehai Milgrom, A modification of the Newtonian dynamics - Implications for galaxy systems, Astrophysical Journal. 270: 384. (1983) doi:10.1086/161132
and its most popular relativistic completion TeVeS is due to * Bekenstein 2004
General review includes
Benoît Famaey and Stacy S. McGaugh, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND): Observational Phenomenology and Relativistic Extensions,2012, Living Reviews in Relativity, 15, 10 (arXiv:1112.3960)
Joe Silk, Gary A. Mamon, The Current Status of Galaxy Formation (arXiv:1207.3080)
Wikipedia, Modified Newtonian dynamics
Wikipedia, Tensor–vector–scalar gravity
Phillip James E. Peebles, §5.7 “Why is MOND Successful but Unpoular” of: Anomalies in Physical Cosmology [arXiv:2208.05018]
The stark failure of plain MOND to fit data on large cosmological scales is highlighted in
Scott Dodelson, The Real Problem with MOND, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D, 20, 2749 (2011). (arXiv:1112.1320)
Kris Pardo, David Spergel, What is the price of abandoning dark matter? Cosmological constraints on alternative gravity theories (arXiv:2007.00555)
The instability of its relativistic completion by TeVeS was pointed out in
The detection of gravitational waves coincident with electromagnetic radiation from merging neutron stars (event GW170817, LIGO-Virgo 17) constrains relativistic completions of MOND:
Jose María Ezquiaga, Miguel Zumalacárregui, Dark Energy after GW170817 (arXiv:1710.05901)
Sibel Boran, Shantanu Desai, Emre Kahya, Richard Woodard, GW170817 Falsifies Dark Matter Emulators (arXiv:1710.06168)
The observation of a galaxy that does not exhibit the effect which MOND claims is universal (otherwise attributed to the presence of dark matter) is reported in
Regardless of the formation history of NGC1052–DF2, its existence has implications for the dark matter paradigm. Our results demonstrate that dark matter is separable from galaxies, which is (under certain circumstances) expected if it is bound to baryons through nothing but gravity. The “bullet cluster” demonstrates that dark matter does not always trace the bulk of the baryonic mass, which in clusters is in the form of gas. NGC1052–DF2 enables us to make the complementary point that dark matter does not always coincide with galaxies either: it is a distinct “substance” that may or may not be present in a galaxy. Furthermore, and paradoxically, the existence of NGC1052–DF2 may falsify alternatives to dark matter. In theories such as MOND and the recently proposed emergent gravity paradigm a “dark matter” signature should always be detected, as it is an unavoidable consequence of the presence of ordinary matter. In fact, it had been argued previously that the apparent absence of galaxies such as NGC1052–DF2 constituted a falsification of the standard cosmological model, and evidence for modified gravity.
Derivations of the MOND phenomenology from actual dark matter is discussed in the following articles:
Manoj Kaplinghat, Michael S. Turner, How Cold Dark Matter Theory Explains Milgrom’s Law, Astrophys.J. 569 (2002) L19 (arXiv:astro-ph/0107284)
Jean-Philippe Bruneton, Stefano Liberati, Lorenzo Sindoni, Benoit Famaey, Reconciling MOND and dark matter?, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 03, pp. 021 (2009) (arXiv:0811.3143)
Man Ho Chan, Reconciliation of MOND and Dark Matter theory, Phys. Rev. D, 88, 103501 (2013) (arXiv:1310.6801)
and specifically for axionic fuzzy dark matter:
and for fuzzy dark matter with superfluid-effects includes in
Lasha Berezhiani, Justin Khoury, Theory of Dark Matter Superfluidity, Phys. Rev. D 92, 103510 (2015) (arXiv:1507.01019)
Justin Khoury, Another Path for the Emergence of Modified Galactic Dynamics from Dark Matter Superfluidity, Phys. Rev. D 93, 103533 (2016) (arXiv:1602.05961)
Hybrid models which contain both MOND and dark matter are explored in
Tobias Mistele, Cherenkov radiation from stars constrains hybrid MOND dark matter models. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Volume 2022, November 2022 (doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2022/11/008, arXiv:2103.16954)
Tobias Mistele, A novel Cherenkov radiation constraint for hybrid MOND dark matter models, (arXiv:2208.14308)
On relativistic MOND models:
Jacob Bekenstein, Relativistic gravitation theory for the modified Newtonian dynamics paradigm, Physical Review D 70 8 (2004) 083509, [arXiv:astro-ph/0403694, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.70.083509]
Constantinos Skordis, Tom Zlosnik, A new relativistic theory for Modified Newtonian Dynamics. Physical Review Letters. Volume 127, Issue 16. Published 15 October 2021 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.161302, arXiv:2007.00082)
Constantinos Skordis, Tom Zlosnik, Aether scalar tensor theory: Linear stability on Minkowski space. Physical Review D. Volume 106, Issue 10. Published 15 November 2022. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.106.104041, arXiv:2109.13287)
Tobias Mistele, Stacy McGaugh, Sabine Hossenfelder, Aether Scalar Tensor theory confronted with weak lensing data at small accelerations, (arXiv:2301.03499)
Last revised on January 11, 2023 at 02:44:33. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.