topology (point-set topology, point-free topology)
see also differential topology, algebraic topology, functional analysis and topological homotopy theory
Basic concepts
fiber space, space attachment
Extra stuff, structure, properties
Kolmogorov space, Hausdorff space, regular space, normal space
sequentially compact, countably compact, locally compact, sigma-compact, paracompact, countably paracompact, strongly compact
Examples
Basic statements
closed subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are equivalently compact subspaces
open subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are locally compact
compact spaces equivalently have converging subnet of every net
continuous metric space valued function on compact metric space is uniformly continuous
paracompact Hausdorff spaces equivalently admit subordinate partitions of unity
injective proper maps to locally compact spaces are equivalently the closed embeddings
locally compact and second-countable spaces are sigma-compact
Theorems
Analysis Theorems
Given a continuous function between two connected closed oriented topological manifolds of the same dimension, its degree is a measure for how often the function “wraps its domain around its codomain”.
For $X$ is a connected closed oriented manifold of dimension $n$, its top homology group $H_n(X) = H_n(X; \mathbb{Z})$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}$, where the generator $1 \in \mathbb{Z}$ is identified with the orientation class $[\omega_X]$ of $X$, the fundamental class of $X$.
Given a continuous map $f \colon X \to Y$ between two such manifolds, the homomorphism $f_\ast = H_n(f) \colon H_n(X) \to H_n(Y)$ is therefore specified by the integer $n$ such that $f_\ast [\omega_X] = n [\omega_Y]$. This integer is called the degree of $f$.
We suppose throughout that $X$ and $Y$ are connected closed oriented manifolds of the same dimension $n$. The degree of a continuous function $g \colon X \to Y$ is frequently computed according to the following considerations:
The space of continuous functions $g \colon X \to Y$ has a dense subspace consisting of smooth functions $f \colon X \to Y$, and in particular every continuous function $g$ is homotopic to a smooth function $f$. It therefore suffices to compute the degree of $f$.
By Sard's theorem, the set of singular values? of a smooth function $f$ has measure zero (using for example the orientation on $Y$ to define a volume form and hence a measure). Accordingly, we may choose a regular value $y \in Y$.
The inverse image $f^{-1}(y)$ is a compact $0$-dimensional manifold, hence consists of finitely many (possibly zero) points $x_1, \ldots, x_r \in X$. Since these are regular points, $f$ restricts to a diffeomorphism
where $U_i$ is a small neighborhood of $x_i$ and $V$ is a small neighborhood of $y$. The diffeomorphism $f_i$ either preserves or reverses the orientation of $U_i$, i.e., the sign of the determinant as a mapping between differential n-forms
is either $+1$ or $-1$.
By a straightforward application of the excision axiom in homology, it follows that the degree of $f$ is the sum of these signs:
and this quantity is independent of the choice of regular value $y$.
(Hopf degree theorem)
Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$ be a natural number and $X \in Mfd$ be a connected orientable closed manifold of dimension $n$. Then the $n$th cohomotopy classes $\left[X \overset{c}{\to} S^n\right] \in \pi^n(X)$ of $X$ are in bijection to the degree $deg(c) \in \mathbb{Z}$ of the representing functions, hence the canonical function
from $n$th cohomotopy to $n$th integral cohomology is a bijection.
(e.g. Kosinski 93, IX (5.8), Kobin 16, 7.5)
See at Poincaré–Hopf theorem.
The Hopf degree of a map is a special case of its Adams d-invariant; see there for more.
Texbook accounts:
See also:
Last revised on July 19, 2021 at 15:30:36. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.