nLab
gradient

Contents

Context

Riemannian geometry

Differential geometry

synthetic differential geometry

Introductions

from point-set topology to differentiable manifolds

geometry of physics: coordinate systems, smooth spaces, manifolds, smooth homotopy types, supergeometry

Differentials

V-manifolds

smooth space

Tangency

The magic algebraic facts

Theorems

Axiomatics

cohesion

  • (shape modality \dashv flat modality \dashv sharp modality)

    (ʃ)(ʃ \dashv \flat \dashv \sharp )

  • dR-shape modality\dashv dR-flat modality

    ʃ dR dRʃ_{dR} \dashv \flat_{dR}

  • tangent cohesion

    • differential cohomology diagram
    • differential cohesion

      • (reduction modality \dashv infinitesimal shape modality \dashv infinitesimal flat modality)

        (&)(\Re \dashv \Im \dashv \&)

      • graded differential cohesion

        • fermionic modality\dashv bosonic modality \dashv rheonomy modality

          (Rh)(\rightrightarrows \dashv \rightsquigarrow \dashv Rh)

        • id id fermionic bosonic bosonic Rh rheonomic reduced infinitesimal infinitesimal & étale cohesive ʃ discrete discrete continuous *

          \array{ && id &\dashv& id \ && \vee && \vee \ &\stackrel{fermionic}{}& \rightrightarrows &\dashv& \rightsquigarrow & \stackrel{bosonic}{} \ && \bot && \bot \ &\stackrel{bosonic}{} & \rightsquigarrow &\dashv& Rh & \stackrel{rheonomic}{} \ && \vee && \vee \ &\stackrel{reduced}{} & \Re &\dashv& \Im & \stackrel{infinitesimal}{} \ && \bot && \bot \ &\stackrel{infinitesimal}{}& \Im &\dashv& \& & \stackrel{\text{étale}}{} \ && \vee && \vee \ &\stackrel{cohesive}{}& ʃ &\dashv& \flat & \stackrel{discrete}{} \ && \bot && \bot \ &\stackrel{discrete}{}& \flat &\dashv& \sharp & \stackrel{continuous}{} \ && \vee && \vee \ && \emptyset &\dashv& \ast }

          </semantics></math></div>

          Models

          Lie theory, ∞-Lie theory

          differential equations, variational calculus

          Chern-Weil theory, ∞-Chern-Weil theory

          Cartan geometry (super, higher)

          Contents

          Definition

          Let (X,g)(X,g) be a Riemannian manifold and fC (X)f \in C^\infty(X) a function.

          The gradient of ff is the vector field

          f:=g 1d dRfΓ(TX), \nabla f := g^{-1} d_{dR} f \in \Gamma(T X) \,,

          where d dR:C (X)Ω 1(X)d_{dR} : C^\infty(X) \to \Omega^1(X) is the de Rham differential.

          This is the unique vector field f\nabla f such that

          d dRf=g(,f) d_{dR} f = g(-,\nabla f)

          or equivalently, if the manifold is oriented, this is the unique vector field such that

          d dRf= gι fvol g, d_{dR} f = \star_g \iota_{\nabla f} vol_g \,,

          where vol gvol_g is the volume form and g\star_g is the Hodge star operator induced by gg. (The result is independent of orientation, which can be made explicit by interpreting both volvol and \star as valued in pseudoforms.)

          Alternatively, the gradient of a scalar field AA in some point xMx\in M is calculated (or alternatively defined) by the integral formula

          gradA=lim volD01volD DnAdS grad A = lim_{vol D\to 0} \frac{1}{vol D} \oint_{\partial D} \vec{n} A d S

          where DD runs over the domains with smooth boundary D\partial D containing point xx and n\vec{n} is the unit vector of outer normal to the surface SS. The formula does not depend on the shape of boundaries taken in limiting process, so one can typically take a coordinate chart and balls with decreasing radius in this particular coordinate chart.

          Example

          If (M,g)(M,g) is the Cartesian space n\mathbb{R}^n endowed with the standard Euclidean metric, then

          f= i=1 nfx i i. \nabla f= \sum_{i=1}^n\frac{\partial f}{\partial x^i}\partial_i .

          This is the classical gradient from vector analysis?.

          Remark

          In many classical applications of the gradient in vector analysis?, the Riemannian structure is actually irrelevant, and the gradient can be replaced with the differential 1-form.

          Last revised on October 3, 2018 at 10:45:57. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.