Contents

# Contents

## Definition

###### Definition

A topological groupoid or Lie groupoid $C$ is called an étale groupoid if the source-map $s : Mor C \to Obj C$ is a local homeomorphism or local diffeomorphism, respectively, and hence exhibits the space of morphisms as an étale space over the space of objects.

###### Remark

In the situation of def. it follows that all the other structure maps (target, identity, composition) are also local homeomorphisms, resp. local diffeomorphisms.

This means that an étale groupoid is equivalently an internal groupoid in the category whose objects are topological spaces/smooth manifolds and whose morphisms are local homeomorphisms/diffeomorphisms.

###### Remark

Definition is not invariant under the general notion of equivalence of Lie groupoids, the equivalence between them regarded as smooth groupoids, specifically as differentiable stacks (“Morita equivalence”).

But it does make sense to take an étale smooth groupoid to be a smooth groupoid/differentiable stack which is equivalent, as such, to, hence is presented by an étale Lie groupoid as in def. . This notion has been called folitation groupoid in (Crainic-Moerdijk 00).

The following characterizes foliation groupoids

###### Theorem

For a Lie groupoid $\mathcal{G}_\bullet$ the following are equivalent

1. $\mathcal{G}$ is a foliation groupoid, hence is equivalent, as a differentiable stack to an étale groupoid as in def. ;

2. The Lie algebroid $(\mathfrak{g},\mathcal{G}_0)$ which corresponds to $\mathcal{G}$ under Lie differentiation has an injective anchor map;

hence the orbits of $\mathcal{G}$ form the leaves of a foliation, the foliation whose leaves are tangent to the vectors in the image of this anchor map;

3. All isotropy groups of $\mathcal{G}_\bullet$ are discrete groups.

This is (Crainic-Moerdijk 00, theorem 1).

## Properties

### Cohomology and homology

In the literature one finds, roughly speaking, two different approaches to the study of étale groupoids. One approach is based on the construction of the convolution algebras associated to an étale groupoid, in the spirit of Connes’ noncommutative geometry, and involves the study of cyclic and Hochschild homology and cohomology of these algebras. The other approach uses methods of algebraic topology such as the construction of the classifying space of an étale groupoid and its (sheaf) cohomology groups.

### Relation to Haefliger groupoids

For $X_\bullet$ an étale groupoid, there is a canonical morphism

$X_\bullet \longrightarrow \mathcal{H}(X_0)$

to the Haefliger groupoid, example , of its manifold of objects. The kernel of this map is the ineffective part of $X_\bullet$. If the kernel vanishes, then $X$ is called an effective Lie groupoid.

(e.g. Carchedi 12, section 2.2)

### Characterization by convolution Hopf algebroids (Gelfand duality)

The groupoid convolution algebra $C^\ast(\mathcal{G}_\bullet)$ of a Lie groupoid with its canonical atlas remembered has the structure of a Hopf algebroid. In (Mrčun 99, Kališnik-Mrčun 07) étale Lie groupoids are characterized dually by their Hopf algebroids (a refinement of Gelfand duality to noncommutative topology).

### Characterization by site of manifolds and étale maps

###### Proposition

The 2-category of étale stacks with étale maps between them is equivalent to the 2-topos over the site of smooth manifolds with local diffeomorphisms between them

###### Proposition

A smooth stack is an étale stack precisely if it is in the essential image of the left Kan extension along the non-full inclusion of sites

$SmthMfd^{et} \to SmthMfd$

of smooth manifolds, with local diffeomorphisms on the left and all smooth functions on the right.

In particular:

###### Proposition

A smooth stack is an effective étale stack precisely if under the prolongation of prop. it is equivalent to the image of a sheaf (i.e. of a 0-truncated stack).

### Formalization in differential cohesion

See at differential cohesion the section Etale objects.

## Examples

Étale groupoids arise naturally as models for leaf spaces of foliations, for orbifolds, and for orbit spaces of discrete group actions.

###### Example

Every topological space may be regarded as an étale groupoid with only identity morphisms.

###### Example

For $X$ a topological space and $\Gamma$ a discrete group with a continuous action $X \times \Gamma \to X$ on $X$, the action groupoid $X//\Gamma$ is étale.

###### Example

The Haefliger groupoid $\Gamma^q$ has the Cartesian space $\mathbb{R}^q$ as its space of objects. A morphism $x \to y$ is a germ of a diffeomorphism $(\mathbb{R}^q,x) \to (\mathbb{R}^q, y)$.

This groupoid, and its geometric realization play a central role in foliation theory.

###### Example

Every orbifold is an étale Lie groupoid.

A standard textbook account is section 5.5. of

The relation between étale groupoid and foliations is analyzed in detail in