Contents

# Contents

## Definition

A topological space $(X,\tau)$ is called a Kolmogorov space if it satisfies the $T_0$-separation axiom, hence if for $x_1 \neq x_2 \in X$ any two distinct points, then at least one of them has an open neighbourhood $U_{x_i} \in \tau$ which does not contain the other point.

the main separation axioms

numbernamestatementreformulation
$T_0$Kolmogorovgiven two distinct points, at least one of them has an open neighbourhood not containing the other pointevery irreducible closed subset is the closure of at most one point
$T_1$given two distinct points, both have an open neighbourhood not containing the other pointall points are closed
$T_2$Hausdorffgiven two distinct points, they have disjoint open neighbourhoodsthe diagonal is a closed map
$T_{\gt 2}$$T_1$ and…all points are closed and…
$T_3$regular Hausdorff…given a point and a closed subset not containing it, they have disjoint open neighbourhoods…every neighbourhood of a point contains the closure of an open neighbourhood
$T_4$normal Hausdorff…given two disjoint closed subsets, they have disjoint open neighbourhoods…every neighbourhood of a closed set also contains the closure of an open neighbourhood
… every pair of disjoint closed subsets is separated by an Urysohn function

## Properties

### Reflection

###### Proposition

(Kolmogorov quotient)

Let $(X,\tau)$ be a topological space. Consider the relation on the underlying set by which $x_1 \sim x_1$ precisely if neighther $x_i$ has an open neighbourhood not containing the other. This is an equivalence relation. The quotient topological space $X \to X/\sim$ by this equivalence relation is a $T_0$-space.

This construction is the reflector exhibiting Kolmogorov spaces as a reflective subcategory of the category Top of all topological spaces.