Contents

Contents

Definition

A topological space $(X,\tau)$ is called an accessible topological space or a $T_1$-topological space if it is both a Kolmogorov topological space and a symmetric topological space. Or equivalently, if its specialization preorder is equality. Or equivalently still, if all singletons are closed subsets (“points are closed”).

the main separation axioms

numbernamestatementreformulation
$T_0$Kolmogorovgiven two distinct points, at least one of them has an open neighbourhood not containing the other pointevery irreducible closed subset is the closure of at most one point
$T_1$given two distinct points, both have an open neighbourhood not containing the other pointall points are closed
$T_2$Hausdorffgiven two distinct points, they have disjoint open neighbourhoodsthe diagonal is a closed map
$T_{\gt 2}$$T_1$ and…all points are closed and…
$T_3$regular Hausdorff…given a point and a closed subset not containing it, they have disjoint open neighbourhoods…every neighbourhood of a point contains the closure of an open neighbourhood
$T_4$normal Hausdorff…given two disjoint closed subsets, they have disjoint open neighbourhoods…every neighbourhood of a closed set also contains the closure of an open neighbourhood
… every pair of disjoint closed subsets is separated by an Urysohn function

Properties

In terms of lifting properties

The separation conditions $T_0$ to $T_4$ may equivalently be understood as lifting properties against certain maps of finite topological spaces, among others.

This is discussed at separation axioms in terms of lifting properties, to which we refer for further details. Here we just briefly indicate the corresponding lifting diagrams.

In the following diagrams, the relevant finite topological spaces are indicated explicitly by illustration of their underlying point set and their open subsets:

• points (elements) are denoted by $\bullet$ with subscripts indicating where the points map to;

• boxes are put around open subsets,

• an arrow $\bullet_u \to \bullet_c$ means that $\bullet_c$ is in the topological closure of $\bullet_u$.

In the lifting diagrams for $T_2-T_4$ below, an arrow out of the given topological space $X$ is a map that determines (classifies) a decomposition of $X$ into a union of subsets with properties indicated by the picture of the finite space.

Notice that the diagrams for $T_2$-$T_4$ below do not in themselves imply $T_1$.

Proposition

(Lifting property encoding $T_0$)
The following lifting property in Top equivalently encodes the separation axiom $T_0$:

Proposition

(Lifting property encoding $T_1$)
The following lifting property in Top equivalently encodes the separation axiom $T_1$:

Proposition

(Lifting property encoding $T_2$)
The following lifting property in Top equivalently encodes the separation axiom $T_2$:

Proposition

(Lifting property encoding $T_3$)
The following lifting property in Top equivalently encodes the separation axiom $T_3$:

Proposition

(Lifting property encoding $T_4$)
The following lifting property in Top equivalently encodes the separation axiom $T_4$:

Examples

Leibniz's identity of indiscernibles implies that every set $X$ with its power set $\mathcal{P}(X)$ is an accessible topological space:

$\left(\forall P \in \mathcal{P}(X).(x \in P) \iff (y \in P)\right) \implies x = y$

for all $x \in X$ and $y \in X$, since the relation

$\forall P \in \mathcal{P}(X).(x \in P) \iff (y \in P)$

is an equivalence relation.

References

Last revised on January 31, 2024 at 07:43:43. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.