Fields and quanta

field (physics)

standard model of particle physics

force field gauge bosons

scalar bosons

matter field fermions (spinors, Dirac fields)

flavors of fundamental fermions in the
standard model of particle physics:
generation of fermions1st generation2nd generation3d generation
quarks (qq)
up-typeup quark (uu)charm quark (cc)top quark (tt)
down-typedown quark (dd)strange quark (ss)bottom quark (bb)
neutralelectron neutrinomuon neutrinotau neutrino
bound states:
mesonslight mesons:
pion (udu d)
ρ-meson (udu d)
ω-meson (udu d)
ϕ-meson (ss¯s \bar s),
kaon, K*-meson (usu s, dsd s)
eta-meson (uu+dd+ssu u + d d + s s)

charmed heavy mesons:
D-meson (uc u c, dcd c, scs c)
J/ψ-meson (cc¯c \bar c)
bottom heavy mesons:
B-meson (qbq b)
ϒ-meson (bb¯b \bar b)
proton (uud)(u u d)
neutron (udd)(u d d)

(also: antiparticles)

effective particles

hadron (bound states of the above quarks)


minimally extended supersymmetric standard model




dark matter candidates


auxiliary fields



In particle physics the term Z’-boson refers to a hypothetical higher-mass cousin of the Z-boson which is predicted by some models that extend the standard model of particle physics, such as grand unified theories (e.g. Sahoo 06).

The existence of the ZZ' has been proposed as one possible explanation of the apparently observed flavour anomalies (Gauld-Goertz-Haisch 13, D’Ambrosio-Iver-Piccinini-Polosa 19)


Experimental constraints:

  • CMS collaboration, Search for an L μL τL_\mu - L_\tau gauge boson using Z4μZ \to 4\mu events in proton-proton collisions at s=13TeV\sqrt{s} = 13TeV (arXiv:1808.03684)

As arising in GUTs:

  • S. Sahoo, The prediction of mass of ZZ'-boson in an SO(10)SO(10)-based model, Indian J. Phys. 80 (2), 191-194 (2006) (pdf)

As a possible solution to the flavour anomalies:

  • Rhorry Gauld, Florian Goertz, Ulrich Haisch, An explicit Z’-boson explanation of the BK *μ +μ B \to K^\ast \mu^+ \mu^- anomaly, JHEP01(2014)069 (arXiv:1310.1082)

  • Richard H. Benavides, Luis Muñoz, William A. Ponce, Oscar Rodríguez, Eduardo Rojas, Minimal Z Z^\prime models for flavor anomalies (arXiv:1812.05077)

  • Giancarlo D’Ambrosio, A. M. Iyer, F. Piccinini, A.D. Polosa, Confronting BB anomalies with atomic physics (arXiv:1902.00893)

  • P. Ko, Takaaki Nomura, Chaehyun Yu, bsμ +μ b \to s \mu^+ \mu^- anomalies and related phenomenology in U(1) B 3x μL μx τL τU(1)_{B_{3-x_\mu L_\mu - x_\tau L_\tau}} flavor gauge models (arXiv:1902.06107)

  • Joe Davighi, Connecting neutral current BB anomalies with the heaviness of the third family, Contribution to the 2019 QCD session of the 54th Rencontres de Moriond (arXiv:1905.06073)

  • Wolfgang Altmannshofer, Joe Davighi, Marco Nardecchia, Gauging the accidental symmetries of the Standard Model, and implications for the flavour anomalies (arXiv:1909.02021)

Last revised on February 18, 2020 at 00:44:52. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.