topology (point-set topology, point-free topology)
see also differential topology, algebraic topology, functional analysis and topological homotopy theory
Basic concepts
fiber space, space attachment
Extra stuff, structure, properties
Kolmogorov space, Hausdorff space, regular space, normal space
sequentially compact, countably compact, locally compact, sigma-compact, paracompact, countably paracompact, strongly compact
Examples
Basic statements
closed subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are equivalently compact subspaces
open subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are locally compact
compact spaces equivalently have converging subnet of every net
continuous metric space valued function on compact metric space is uniformly continuous
paracompact Hausdorff spaces equivalently admit subordinate partitions of unity
injective proper maps to locally compact spaces are equivalently the closed embeddings
locally compact and second-countable spaces are sigma-compact
Theorems
Analysis Theorems
Recall:
Let $(X,\tau)$ be a topological space.
An open cover $\{U_i \subset X\}_{i \in I}$ of $X$ is called locally finite if for each point $x \in X$, there exists a neighbourhood $U_x \supset \{x\}$ such that it intersects only finitely many elements of the cover, hence such that $U_x \cap U_i \neq \emptyset$ for only a finite number of $i \in I$.
(refinement of open covers)
Let $(X,\tau)$ be a topological space, and let $\{U_i \subset X\}_{i \in I}$ be a open cover.
Then a refinement of this open cover is a set of open subsets $\{V_j \subset X\}_{j \in J}$ which is still an open cover in itself and such that for each $j \in J$ there exists an $i \in I$ with $V_j \subset U_i$.
Now:
(paracompact topological space)
A topological space $(X,\tau)$ is called paracompact if every open cover of $X$ has a refinement (def. ) by a locally finite open cover (def. ).
(differing terminology)
As with the concept of compact topological spaces (this remark), some authors demand a paracompact space to also be a Hausdorff topological space. See at paracompact Hausdorff space.
Every compact space is paracompact.
Every locally connected locally compact topological group is paracompact (this prop.).
locally compact and second-countable Hausdorff space are paracompact.
(Euclidean space is paracompact)
For $n \in \mathbb{N}$, then the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$, regarded with its metric topology is paracompact.
Euclidean space is evidently locally compact and sigma-compact. Therefore the statement follows since locally compact and sigma-compact spaces are paracompact (prop. ).
Paracompactness is preserved by forming disjoint union spaces (coproducts in Top).
Consider a disjoint union $X = \coprod X_\lambda$ whose components are paracompact. As the union is disjoint, the components, that is to say, the $X_\lambda$, are open in $X$. Thus any open cover, say $\mathcal{U}$, of $X$ has a refinement by open sets, say $\mathcal{V}$, such that each $V \in \mathcal{V}$ is contained in some $X_\lambda$. Thus we can write $\mathcal{V} = \coprod \mathcal{V}_\lambda$. As each $X_\lambda$ is paracompact, each $\mathcal{V}_\lambda$ has a locally finite refinement, say $\mathcal{W}_\lambda$. Then let $\mathcal{W} := \coprod \mathcal{W}_\lambda$. As each $\mathcal{W}_\lambda$ is a refinement of the corresponding $\mathcal{V}_\lambda$, $\mathcal{W}$ is a refinement of $\mathcal{V}$, and hence of $\mathcal{U}$. As each point of $X$ has a neighbourhood which meets only elements of one of the $\mathcal{W}_\lambda$, and as that $\mathcal{W}_\lambda$ is locally finite, $\mathcal{W}$ is locally finite. Thus $\mathcal{U}$ has a locally finite refinement.
finite-dimensional manifolds are locally compact, so we have the results above, but we also have some converses:
a finite-dimensional Hausdorff topological manifold is paracompact precisely if it is metrizable
a finite-dimensional Hausdorff topological manifold is paracompact precisely if each component is second-countable
infinite-dimensional manifolds are generally not locally compact, but we still have some results:
The Frechet smooth loop space of a compact finite dimensional manifold is paracompact.
More generally, if $E$ is the sequential limit of separable Hilbert spaces $H_n$, such that the canonical projections
satisfy
for any open ball $B$ in $H_n$, then $E$ is paracompact, and furthermore admits smooth partitions of unity.
CW-complexes are paracompact Hausdorff spaces (Miyazaki 52), see for instance Hatcher, appendix of section 1.2. For a discussion that highlights which choice principles are involved, see (Fritsch-Piccinini 90, Theorem 1.3.5 (p. 29 and following)).
metric spaces
every separable metric space is paracompact;
every metric space whatsoever is paracompact, assuming the axiom of choice; see at metric spaces are paracompact
pseudometric spaces are paracompact under the same conditions, if one does not require Hausdorffness;
In particular we have the following implications
second-countable space and regular Hausdorff space
$\Rightarrow$ metrizable space $\Rightarrow$ paracompact space
(the first is Urysohn’s metrization theorem, the second is due to Stone 48, see also at second-countable regular spaces are paracompact and metric spaces are paracompact)
paracompact space and locally metric space $\Rightarrow$ metrizable space
(this is due to Smirnov)
special cases
counterexamples
the long line is not paracompact, even though it is a manifold (unless one specifically requires paracompactness of manifolds) but it fails to be second-countable (even though it is connected) or metrisable.
the Sorgenfrey plane (a product of two Sorgenfrey lines) is not paracompact. This shows that the product of paracompact spaces need not be paracompact.
A closed subspace of a paracompact topological space is itself paracompact.
Dieudonne’s theorem: paracompact Hausdorff spaces are normal
every paracompact finite-dimensional topological manifold has a partition of unity
paracompact Hausdorff spaces equivalently admit subordinate partitions of unity
Care should be taken as to in which category one considers partitions of unity on paracompact spaces: For example, analytic partitions of unity generally do not exist on (finite -dimensional) smooth manifolds, even when smooth ones do.
For paracompact Hausdorff spaces, all open covers are numerable open covers.
Let $X$ be a paracompact Hausdorff space, and let $\{U_i \subset X\}_{i \in I}$ be an open cover. Then there exists a countable cover
such that each element $V_n$ is a union of open subsets of $X$ each of which is contained in at least one of the elements $U_i$ of the original cover.
(e.g. Hatcher, lemma 1.21)
Let $\{f_i \colon X \to [0,1]\}_{i \in I}$ be a partition of unity subordinate to the original cover, which exists since paracompact Hausdorff spaces equivalently admit subordinate partitions of unity.
For $J \subset I$ a finite set, let
By local finiteness there are only a finite number of $f_k(x)$ greater than zero, hence the condition on the right is a finite number of strict inequalities. Since the $f_i$ are continuous, this implies that $V_J$ is an open subset.
Moreover, $V_J$ is contained in $supp(f_j)$ for $j \in J$ and hence in one of the $U_i$.
Now for $n \in \mathbb{N}$ take
to be the union of the $V_J$ over all subset $J$ with precisely $n$ elements.
The set $\{V_n \subset X\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ is a cover because for any $x \in X$ we have $x \in V_{J_x}$ for
(which is finite by local finitness of the partition of unity).
See at colimits of paracompact Hausdorff spaces.
On paracompact spaces, abelian Čech cohomology does compute abelian sheaf cohomology,
i.e. the canonical morphism $\check{H}(X,A) \to H(X,A)$ for $A$ any chain complex of sheaves is an isomorphism when the topological space underlying $X$ is paracompact.
On a paracompact space $X$, every hypercover of finite height is refined by the Čech nerve of an ordinary open cover.
For a hypercover of height $n \in \mathbb{N}$, this follows by intersecting the open covers that are produced by the following lemma for $0 \leq k \leq n$.
For $X$ a paracompact topological space, let $\{U_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ be an open cover, and let each $(k+1)$-fold intersection $U_{\alpha_0, \cdots, \alpha_{k}}$ be equipped itself with an open cover $\{V^{\alpha_0, \cdots, \alpha_k}_{\beta}\}$.
Then there exists a refinement $\{U'_{\alpha'}\}$ of the original cover, such that each $(k+1)$-fold intersection $U'_{\alpha'_0, \cdots, \alpha'_k}$ for all indices distinct is contained in one of the $V_\beta$.
This appears as (HTT, lemma 7.2.3.5).
compact topological space, countably compact topological space, locally compact topological space, strongly compact topological space, sequentially compact topological space
The notion of paracompact space was introduced in
That fully normal spaces are equivalently paracompact is due to
General accounts include
R. Engelking, General topology, chapter 5 is dedicated to paracompact spaces
Brian Conrad, Paracompactness and local compactness, pdf
D. K. Burke, Covering properties, in: K. Kunen, J.E. Vaughan (eds.), Handbook of Set-Theoretic Topology, North-Holland (1984) Ch. 9, 347–422
Alan Hatcher, section 1.2 of Vector bundles & K-theory (web)
Heikki Junnila, pp. 73 in: A second course in general topology (2007) [pdf]
English Wikipedia: paracompact space
Springer eom: paracompact space, paracompactness criteria
A basic discussion with an eye towards abelian sheaf cohomology and abelian Čech cohomology is around page 32 of
Discussion of paracompactness of CW-complexes includes
Last revised on June 17, 2023 at 19:30:27. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.