Fields and quanta

fields and particles in particle physics

and in the standard model of particle physics:

force field gauge bosons

scalar bosons

matter field fermions (spinors, Dirac fields)

flavors of fundamental fermions in the
standard model of particle physics:
generation of fermions1st generation2nd generation3d generation
quarks (qq)
up-typeup quark (uu)charm quark (cc)top quark (tt)
down-typedown quark (dd)strange quark (ss)bottom quark (bb)
neutralelectron neutrinomuon neutrinotau neutrino
bound states:
mesonslight mesons:
pion (udu d)
ρ-meson (udu d)
ω-meson (udu d)
ϕ-meson (ss¯s \bar s),
kaon, K*-meson (usu s, dsd s)
eta-meson (uu+dd+ssu u + d d + s s)

charmed heavy mesons:
D-meson (uc u c, dcd c, scs c)
J/ψ-meson (cc¯c \bar c)
bottom heavy mesons:
B-meson (qbq b)
ϒ-meson (bb¯b \bar b)
proton (uud)(u u d)
neutron (udd)(u d d)

(also: antiparticles)

effective particles

hadrons (bound states of the above quarks)


in grand unified theory

minimally extended supersymmetric standard model




dark matter candidates


auxiliary fields



In quantum chromodynamics, in fact already in pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, a glueball is a bound state of (just) gluons (a kind of confinement).

Glueballs are hard to detect in experiment but their existence is confirmed by lattice QCD, also by the AdS-QCD correspondence (see there). According to Greensite 11, section 8.5:

The caloron idea is probably the most promising current version of monopole confinement in pure non-abelian gauge theories, but it is basically (in certain gauges) a superposition of monopoles with spherically symmetric abelian fields, and this leads to the same questions raised in connection with monopole Coulomb gases.


In holographic QCD

In holographic QCD, glueballs are dual to massless scalar fields in the \simAdS-bulk spacetime (for instance, but not necessarily, the dilaton).

The following graphics shows predictions of glueball spectra from a simple AdS/QCD-model compared to lattice QCD-computations

From Brower-Mathur-Tan 00

Apparently the spin structure of type IIA supergravity does resemble the low mass glueball spin splitting. (Brower-Mathur-Tan 00, p. 22)



The first article discussing glueballs is apparently


  • Vincent Mathieu, The Physics of Glueballs, Zakopane, February 2009 (pdf, pdf)

  • Jeff Greensite, An Introduction to the Confinement Problem, Lecture Notes in Physics, Volume 821, 2011 (doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14382-3)

See also

In holographic QCD

Discussion of glueballs in holographic QCD (AdS/QCD):

  • Richard C. Brower, Samir Mathur, Chung-I Tan, Glueball Spectrum for QCD from AdS Supergravity Duality, Nucl. Phys. B587:249-276, 2000 (arXiv:hep-th/0003115)

  • Alex S. Miranda, C. A. Ballon Bayona, Henrique Boschi-Filho, Nelson R. F. Braga, Glueballs at finite temperature from AdS/QCD, Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl. 199:107-112, 2010 (arXiv:0910.4319)

  • Xue-Feng Li, Ailin Zhang, Scalar glueball in a soft-wall model of AdS/QCD, Chinese Physics C, Volume 38, Number 1 (arXiv:1309.7154)

  • Cornélio Rodrigues Filho, Glueballs in the Klebanov-Strassler Theory: Pseudoscalars vs Scalars (arXiv:2011.12689)

Last revised on March 29, 2021 at 00:52:45. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.