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Consider a pair of quantum systems, QQ and EE, where QQ is some system of interest and EE is some system that is external to QQ and that is in some fixed pure state |e\vert e \rangle. Now let us suppose that the two systems interact and evolve via some unitary operator on the tensor product Hilbert space of each, 𝒬\mathscr{Q} \otimes \mathscr{E}. If one is interested in the \mathscr{E}-trace of density operators on this system, then QQ is known as an open system and EE is the environment.


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Last revised on September 18, 2023 at 10:56:56. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.