standard model of particle physics
matter field fermions (spinors, Dirac fields)
flavors of fundamental fermions in the standard model of particle physics: | |||
---|---|---|---|
generation of fermions | 1st generation | 2nd generation | 3d generation |
quarks ($q$) | |||
up-type | up quark ($u$) | charm quark ($c$) | top quark ($t$) |
down-type | down quark ($d$) | strange quark ($s$) | bottom quark ($b$) |
leptons | |||
charged | electron | muon | tauon |
neutral | electron neutrino | muon neutrino | tau neutrino |
bound states: | |||
mesons | pion ($u d$) rho-meson ($u d$) omega-meson ($u d$) | kaon ($q_{u/d} s$) eta-meson (u u + d d + s s) | B-meson ($q b$) |
baryons | proton $(u u d)$ neutron $(u d d)$ |
(also: antiparticles)
hadron (bound states of the above quarks)
minimally extended supersymmetric standard model
bosinos:
dark matter candidates
Exotica
In perturbation theory (in QFT) a tachyon is an excitation/particle with negative mass squared, hence technically with imaginary mass.
Since the masses of particles in perturbation theory give the second derivative of the background potential energy at the point about which the perturbation series is developed, a tachyon in the spectrum indicates that the perturbation theory is set up about an unstable vacuum.
The dynamics of a tachyon will hence make it form a condensate at an actual local potential energy minimum. Once there it is no longer a tachyon, but a genuine particle excitation (“tachyon decay”).
The excitation of the open string in bosonic string theory famously contains a tachyon mode. By Sen's conjecture this indicates the instability of the space-filling D25-brane on which the ends of the open bosonic string propagate. Using string field theory to get a non-perturbative description of the situation one can follow the decay of the D25-brane to the “true” (stable) open bosonic string theory vacuum. (Where however analysis shows that this no longer contains open string excitations, so it is maybe better called a closed string vacuum.) See at Sen's conjecture for more.
The fate of the closed bosonic string tachyon is more subtle. But see the references below.
Similarly in superstring theory open string states between D-brane/anti D-brane pairs may be tachyonic, signallying the decay of these brane configurations. This leads to the conjectured classification of D-brane charge in K-theory (see there).
(…)
The concept originates with
Olexa‐Myron Bilaniuk, V. K. Deshpande, E. C. G. Sudarshan, “Meta” Relativity, American Journal of Physics 30, 718 (1962) (doi:10.1119/1.1941773)
Olexa‐Myron Bilaniuk, E. C. George Sudarshan, Particles beyond the light barrier, Physics Today 22, 5, 43 (1969) (doi:10.1063/1.3035574)
See also
In addition to the open string tachyon condensation discussed in the references at Sen's conjecture, there is also work on the closed string tachyon condensation in the following articles.
A. Adams, Joseph Polchinski and Eva Silverstein, Don’t panic! Closed string tachyons in ALE space-times, JHEP 0110 (2001) 029 (arXiv:hep-th/0108075).
R. Rabadan and J. Simon, M theory lift of brane anti-brane systems and localized closed string tachyons, JHEP 0205 (2002) 045 (arXiv:hep-th/0203243).
Ángel Uranga, Localized instabilities at conifolds, (arXiv:hep-th/0204079).
Shin Nakamura, Closed-string Tachyon Condensation and the On-shell Effective Action of Open-string Tachyons, Prog.Theor.Phys. 106 (2001) 989-1016, (arXiv:hep-th/0105054)
The following articles specifically identify closed string tachyon condensation as the disappearing of dimensions of spacetime.
Simeon Hellerman, X. Liu, Dynamical dimension change in supercritical string theory, JHEP0709:096,2007 (hep-th/0409071)
Simeon Hellerman, Ian Swanson, Dimension-changing exact solutions of string theory, JHEP0709:096,2007 (arXiv:hep-th/0612051)
Mikel Berasaluce-González, Miguel Montero, Ander Retolaza, Ángel Uranga, Discrete gauge symmetries from (closed string) tachyon condensation (arXiv:1305.6788)
Last revised on February 8, 2020 at 05:51:45. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.