see also algebraic topology, functional analysis and homotopy theory
topological space (see also locale)
fiber space, space attachment
Kolmogorov space, Hausdorff space, regular space, normal space
sequentially compact, countably compact, locally compact, sigma-compact, paracompact, countably paracompact, strongly compact
subsets are closed in a closed subspace precisely if they are closed in the ambient space
closed subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are equivalently compact subspaces
open subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are locally compact
compact spaces equivalently have converging subnet of every net
paracompact Hausdorff spaces equivalently admit subordinate partitions of unity
injective proper maps to locally compact spaces are equivalently the closed embeddings
locally compact and second-countable spaces are sigma-compact
Theorems
The Thom space $Th(V)$ of a real vector bundle $V \to X$ over a topological space $X$ is the topological space obtained by first forming the disk bundle $D(V)$ of (unit) disks in the fibers of $V$ (with respect to a metric given by any choice of orthogonal structure) and then identifying to a point the boundaries of all the disks, i.e. forming the quotient topological space by the sphere bundle $S(V)$:
(N.B.: this is a quotient of the total spaces of the bundles taken in $Top$, not a bundle quotient in $Top/V$.)
This is equivalently the mapping cone
in Top of the sphere bundle of $V$. Therefore more generally, for $P \to X$ any n-sphere-fiber bundle over $X$ (spherical fibration), its Thom space is the the mapping cone
of the bundle projection.
For $X$ a compact topological space, $Th(V)$ is a model for the one-point compactification of the total space $V$.
The Thom space of the rank-$n$ universal vector bundle over the classifying space $B O(n)$ of the orthogonal group is usually denoted $M O(n)$. As $n$ ranges, these spaces form the Thom spectrum.
Let $X$ be a topological space and let $V \to X$ be a vector bundle over $X$ of rank $n$, which is associated to an O(n)-principal bundle. Equivalently this means that $V \to X$ is the pullback of the universal vector bundle $E_n \to B O(n)$ over the classifying space. Since $O(n)$ preserves the metric on $\mathbb{R}^n$, by definition, such $V$ inherits the structure of a metric space-fiber bundle. With respect to this structure:
the unit disk bundle $D(V) \to X$ is the subbundle of elements of norm $\leq 1$;
the unit sphere bundle $S(V)\to X$ is the subbundle of elements of norm $= 1$;
$S(V) \overset{i_V}{\hookrightarrow} D(V) \hookrightarrow V$;
the Thom space $Th(V)$ is the cofiber (formed in Top (prop.)) of $i_V$
canonically regarded as a pointed topological space.
If $V \to X$ is a general real vector bundle, then there exists an isomorphism to an $O(n)$-associated bundle and the Thom space of $V$ is, up to based homeomorphism, that of this orthogonal bundle.
If the rank of $V$ is positive, then $S(V)$ is non-empty and then the Thom space is the quotient topological space
However, in the degenerate case that the rank of $V$ vanishes, hence the case that $V = X\times \mathbb{R}^0 \simeq X$, then $D(V) \simeq V \simeq X$, but $S(V) = \emptyset$. Hence now the pushout defining the cofiber is
which exhibits $Th(V)$ as the coproduct of $X$ with the point, hence as $X$ with a basepoint freely adjoined.
Let $V \to X$ be a vector bundle over a CW-complex $X$. Then the Thom space $Th(V)$ (def. 1) is equivalently the homotopy cofiber (def.) of the inclusion $S(V) \longrightarrow D(V)$ of the sphere bundle into the disk bundle.
The Thom space is defined as the ordinary cofiber of $S(V)\to D(V)$. Under the given assumption, this inclusion is a relative cell complex inclusion, hence a cofibration in the classical model structure on topological spaces (thm.). Therefore in this case the ordinary cofiber represents the homotopy cofiber (def.).
The equivalence to the following alternative model for this homotopy cofiber is relevant when discussing Thom isomorphisms and orientation in generalized cohomology:
Let $V \to X$ be a vector bundle over a CW-complex $X$. Write $V-X$ for the complement of its 0-section. Then the Thom space $Th(V)$ (def. 1) is homotopy equivalent to the mapping cone of the inclusion $(V-X) \hookrightarrow V$ (hence to the pair $(V,V-X)$ in the language of generalized (Eilenberg-Steenrod) cohomology).
The mapping cone of any map out of a CW-complex represents the homotopy cofiber of that map (exmpl.). Moreover, transformation by (weak) homotopy equivalences between morphisms induces a (weak) homotopy equivalence on their homotopy fibers (prop.). But we have such a weak homotopy equivalence, given by contracting away the fibers of the vector bundle:
Let $V_1,V_2 \to X$ be two real vector bundles. Then the Thom space (def. 1) of the direct sum of vector bundles $V_1 \oplus V_2 \to X$ is expressed in terms of the Thom space of the pullbacks $V_2|_{D(V_1)}$ and $V_2|_{S(V_1)}$ of $V_2$ to the disk/sphere bundle of $V_1$ as
Notice that
$D(V_1 \oplus V_2) \simeq D(V_2|_{Int D(V_1)}) \cup S(V_1)$;
$S(V_1 \oplus V_2) \simeq S(V_2|_{Int D(V_1)}) \cup Int D(V_2|_{S(V_1)})$.
(Since a point at radius $r$ in $V_1 \oplus V_2$ is a point of radius $r_1 \leq r$ in $V_2$ and a point of radius $\sqrt{r^2 - r_1^2}$ in $V_1$.)
For $V$ a vector bundle then the Thom space (def. 1) of $\mathbb{R}^n \oplus V$, the direct sum of vector bundles with the trivial rank $n$ vector bundle, is homeomorphic to the smash product of the Thom space of $V$ with the $n$-sphere (the $n$-fold reduced suspension).
Apply prop. 3 with $V_1 = \mathbb{R}^n$ and $V_2 = V$. Since $V_1$ is a trivial bundle, then
(as a bundle over $X\times D^n$) and similarly
Prop. 4 implies that for every vector bundle $V$ the sequence of spaces $Th(\mathbb{R}^n \oplus V)$ forms a suspension spectrum: this is the Thom spectrum of $V$.
By prop. 4 and remark 1 the Thom space (def. 1) of a trivial vector bundle of rank $n$ is the $n$-fold suspension of the base space
Therefore a general Thom space may be thought of as a “twisted reduced suspension”, with twist encoded by a vector bundle (or rather by its underlying spherical fibration). See at Thom spectrum – For infinity-module bundles for more on this.
Correspondingly the Thom isomorphism for a given Thom space is a twisted version of the suspension isomorphism.
For $V_1 \to X_1$ and $V_2 \to X_2$ to vector bundles, let $V_1 \boxtimes V_2 \to X_1 \times X_2$ be the direct sum of vector bundles of their pullbacks to $X_1 \times X_2$. The corresponding Thom space is the smash product of the individual Thom spaces:
Prop. 5 induces on the Thom spectra of remark 2 the structure of ring spectra.
If the base space of the vector bundle carries the structure of a CW-complex, then its Thom space (def. 1) canonically inherits the structure of a CW-complex, too:
Let $V \to X$ be a vector bundle of rank $n \geq 1$. over a CW-complex $X$.
Then $Th(V)$ has the structure of a CW-complex with
$S(E)/S(E)$ the only 0-cell
precisely one $(n+k)$-cell $D^{k+n}\to Th(V)$ for each $k$-cell $D^k \to X$ of $X$, given as the pullback
(e.g. Cruz 04, lemma 6)
In particular, $Th(V)$ has a single $n$-cell and an $(n+1)$-cell for each 1-cell of $X$. There are no cells in $Th(C)$ between dimension $0$ and $n$. The cellular boundary of an $(n+1)$-cell is 0 if $V$ is orientable over the corresponding 1-cell of $X$, and it is twice the $n$-cell in the opposite case. Thus $H^n(Th(V);\mathbb{Z})$ is \mathbb Z
if $\mathbb ZV$ is orientable and $0$ if $V$ is non-orientable. In the orientable case a generator of H^n(Th(V);{\mathbb Z})
restricts to a generator of $H^n(Th(V);{\mathbb ZH^n(S^n;\mathbb{Z})$ in the “fiber” $S^n$ of $Th(V)$ over the 0-cell of $X$, hence the same is true for all the “fibers” $S^n$ and so one has a Thom class.
Given a vector bundle $V \to X$ of rank $n$, then the reduced ordinary cohomology of its Thom space $Th(V)$ (def. 1) vanishes in degrees $\lt n$:
Consider the long exact sequence of relative cohomology (here)
Since the cohomology in degree $k$ only depends on the $k$-skeleton, and since for $k \lt n$ the $k$-skeleton of $S(V)$ equals that of $X$, and since $D(V)$ is even homotopy equivalent to $X$, the morhism $i^\ast$ is an isomorphism in degrees lower than $n$. Hence by exactness of the sequence it follows that $H^{\bullet \lt n}(D(V),S(V)) = 0$.
The Thom isomorphism for Thom spaces was originally found in
For general discussion see
Michael Atiyah, Thom complexes, Proc. London Math. Soc. 11 (1961) pp. 291–310
Yuli Rudyak, On Thom spectra, orientability, and cobordism, Springer 1998 googB
Dale Husemöller, Fibre bundles , McGraw-Hill (1966)
myyn.org Thom space, Thom class, Thom isomorphism theorem
See also
Robert Stong, Notes on cobordism theory , Princeton Univ. Press (1968)
W.B. Browder, Surgery on simply-connected manifolds , Springer (1972)
Martin Vito Cruz, An introduction to cobordism, 2004 (pdf)