CW-complex, Hausdorff space, second-countable space, sober space
connected space, locally connected space, contractible space, locally contractible space
The Thom space $Th(V)$ of a real vector bundle $V \to X$ over a topological space $X$ is the topological space obtained by first forming the disk bundle $D(V)$ of (unit) disks in the fibers of $V$ (with respect to a metric given by any choice of orthogonal structure) and then identifying to a point the boundaries of all the disks, i.e. forming the quotient topological space by the sphere bundle $S(V)$:
(N.B.: this is a quotient of the total spaces of the bundles taken in $Top$, not a bundle quotient in $Top/V$.)
This is equivalently the mapping cone
in Top of the sphere bundle of $V$. Therefore more generally, for $P \to X$ any n-sphere-fiber bundle over $X$ (spherical fibration), its Thom space is the the mapping cone
of the bundle projection.
For $X$ a compact topological space, $Th(V)$ is a model for the one-point compactification of the total space $V$.
The Thom space of the rank-$n$ universal vector bundle over the classifying space $B O(n)$ of the orthogonal group is usuelly denoted $M O(n)$. As $n$ ranges, these spaces form the Thom spectrum.
Let $X$ be a topological space and let $V \to X$ be a vector bundle over $X$ of rank $n$, which is associated to an O(n)-principal bundle. Equivalently this means that $V \to X$ is the pullback of the universal vector bundle $E_n \to B O(n)$ over the classifying space. Since $O(n)$ preserves the metric on $\mathbb{R}^n$, by definition, such $V$ inherits the structure of a metric space-fiber bundle. With respect to this structure:
the unit disk bundle $D(V) \to X$ is the subbundle of elements of norm $\leq 1$;
the unit sphere bundle $S(V)\to X$ is the subbundle of elements of norm $= 1$;
$S(V) \overset{i_V}{\hookrightarrow} D(V) \hookrightarrow V$;
the Thom space $Th(V)$ is the cofiber (formed in Top (prop.)) of $i_V$
canonically regarded as a pointed topological space.
If $V \to X$ is a general real vector bundle, then there exists an isomorphism to an $O(n)$-associated bundle and the Thom space of $V$ is, up to based homeomorphism, that of this orthogonal bundle.
If the rank of $V$ is positive, then $S(V)$ is non-empty and then the Thom space is the quotient topological space
However, in the degenerate case that the rank of $V$ vanishes, hence the case that $V = X\times \mathbb{R}^0 \simeq X$, then $D(V) \simeq V \simeq X$, but $S(V) = \emptyset$. Hence now the pushout defining the cofiber is
which exhibits $Th(V)$ as the coproduct of $X$ with the point, hence as $X$ with a basepoint freely adjoined.
Let $V_1,V_2 \to X$ be two real vector bundles. Then the Thom space (def. 1) of the direct sum of vector bundles $V_1 \oplus V_2 \to X$ is expressed in terms of the Thom space of the pullbacks $V_2|_{D(V_1)}$ and $V_2|_{S(V_1)}$ of $V_2$ to the disk/sphere bundle of $V_1$ as
Notice that
$D(V_1 \oplus V_2) \simeq D(V_2|_{Int D(V_1)}) \cup S(V_1)$;
$S(V_1 \oplus V_2) \simeq S(V_2|_{Int D(V_1)}) \cup Int D(V_2|_{S(V_1)})$.
(Since a point at radius $r$ in $V_1 \oplus V_2$ is a point of radius $r_1 \leq r$ in $V_2$ and a point of radius $\sqrt{r^2 - r_1^2}$ in $V_1$.)
For $V$ a vector bundle then the Thom space (def. 1) of $\mathbb{R}^n \oplus V$, the direct sum of vector bundles with the trivial rank $n$ vector bundle, is homeomorphic to the smash product of the Thom space of $V$ with the $n$-sphere (the $n$-fold reduced suspension).
Apply prop. 1 with $V_1 = \mathbb{R}^n$ and $V_2 = V$. Since $V_1$ is a trivial bundle, then
(as a bundle over $X\times D^n$) and similarly
Prop. 2 implies that for every vector bundle $V$ the sequence of spaces $Th(\mathbb{R}^n \oplus V)$ forms a suspension spectrum: this is the Thom spectrum of $V$.
By prop. 2 and remark 1 the Thom space (def. 1) of a trivial vector bundle of rank $n$ is the $n$-fold suspension of the base space
Therefore a general Thom space may be thought of as “twisted suspension”, with twist encoded by a vector bundle (or rather by its underlying spherical fibration). See at Thom spectrum – For infinity-module bundles for more on this.
For $V_1 \to X_1$ and $V_2 \to X_2$ to vector bundles, let $V_1 \boxtimes V_2 \to X_1 \times X_2$ be the direct sum of vector bundles of their pullbacks to $X_1 \times X_2$. The corresponding Thom space is the smash product of the individual Thom spaces:
Prop. 3 induces on the Thom spectra of remark 2 the structure of ring spectra.
The Thom isomorphism for Thom spaces was originally found in
For general discussion see
Michael Atiyah, Thom complexes, Proc. London Math. Soc. 11 (1961) pp. 291–310
Yuli Rudyak, On Thom spectra, orientability, and cobordism, Springer 1998 googB
Dale Husemöller, Fibre bundles , McGraw-Hill (1966)
myyn.org Thom space, Thom class, Thom isomorphism theorem
Also
Robert Stong, Notes on cobordism theory , Princeton Univ. Press (1968)
W.B. Browder, Surgery on simply-connected manifolds , Springer (1972)