gauge-Higgs unification



Fields and quanta

field (physics)

standard model of particle physics

force field gauge bosons

scalar bosons

matter field fermions (spinors, Dirac fields)

flavors of fundamental fermions in the
standard model of particle physics:
generation of fermions1st generation2nd generation3d generation
quarks (qq)
up-typeup quark (uu)charm quark (cc)top quark (tt)
down-typedown quark (dd)strange quark (ss)bottom quark (bb)
neutralelectron neutrinomuon neutrinotau neutrino
bound states:
mesonslight mesons:
pion (udu d)
ρ-meson (udu d)
ω-meson (udu d)
ϕ-meson (ss¯s \bar s),
kaon, K*-meson (usu s, dsd s)
eta-meson (uu+dd+ssu u + d d + s s)

charmed heavy mesons:
D-meson (uc u c, dcd c, scs c)
J/ψ-meson (cc¯c \bar c)
bottom heavy mesons:
B-meson (qbq b)
ϒ-meson (bb¯b \bar b)
proton (uud)(u u d)
neutron (udd)(u d d)

(also: antiparticles)

effective particles

hadron (bound states of the above quarks)


minimally extended supersymmetric standard model




dark matter candidates


auxiliary fields



In particle physics, gauge-Higgs unification (Manton 79, Hosotani 83) also known as the Hosotani mechanism (see Hosotani 12) refers to hypothetical models of particle physics where the Higgs field on 4d spacetimes arises as a component of a gauge field in higher dimensions, either after Kaluza-Klein compactification or by passage to a 4d asymptotic boundary in a Randall-Sundrum model or similar.

graphics grabbed from Lim 09

Gauge-Higgs unification is naturally combined with grand unification of gauge groups, whence one then also speaks of gauge-Higgs grand unification (e.g. Hosotani-Yamatsu 15). Also the Connes-Lott models realize gauge-Higgs unification, in a non-commutative geometric KK-compactification.

Attractive aspects of gauge-Higgs unification include the following:

  1. a potential for providing a mechanism behind the Higgs-sector in the standard model of particle physics which could possibly solve the naturalness/hierarchy problem (e.g. Kaul 08, Csáki-Tanedo 13).

    As such, gauge-Higgs unification is a possible alternative to MSSM-models.

  2. a mechanism for ruling out proton decay in GUT-models, see below.


No proton-decay

Gauge-Higgs grand unification is claimed to predict stability of the proton, hence no proton decay (Hosotani-Yamatsu 15, Furui-Hosotani-Yamatsu 16, Sec. 2.6 Hosotani 17, Section 6).



The mechanism is due to

and was revived with:

  • H. Hatanaka, T. Inami, C.S. Lim, The Gauge Hierarchy Problem and Higher Dimensional Gauge Theories, Mod. Phys. Lett. A13 (1998) 2601-2612 (arXiv:hep-th/9805067)


Deatiled phenomenology:

  • Naoyuki Haba, Kazunori Takenaga, Toshifumi Yamashita, Higgs mass in the gauge-Higgs unification, Phys. Lett. B615 (2005) 247-256 (arXiv:hep-ph/0411250)

  • C. S. Lim, Precision Tests and CP Violation in Gauge-Higgs Unification, 2009 (slides pdf)

  • Jason Carson, Nobuchika Okada, 125 GeV Higgs boson mass from 5D gauge-Higgs unification, Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Volume 2018, Issue 3, March 2018, 033B03 (doi:10.1093/ptep/pty018)

Discussion in view of naturalness/hierarchy problem:

  • Romesh K. Kaul, Naturalness and Electro-weak Symmetry Breaking (arXiv:0803.0381)

In Spin(11)Spin(11)-GUT (“SO(11)SO(11)”):

Discussion in Spin(11)-GUT (“SO(11)-GUT”):

In Spin(12)Spin(12)-GUT (“SO(12)SO(12)”):

Discussion in Spin(11)-GUT (“SO(11)-GUT”):

  • S. Rajpoot and P. Sithikong, Implications of the SO(12)SO(12) gauge symmetry for grand unification, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1649 (1981) (doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.23.1649)

  • Takaaki Nomura, Joe Sato, Standard(-like) Model from an SO(12)SO(12) Grand Unified Theory in six-dimensions with S 2S^2 extra-space, Nucl.Phys.B811:109-122, 2009 (arXiv:0810.0898)

  • Takaaki Nomura, Physics beyond the standard model with S 2S^2 extra-space, 2009 (pdf, pdf)

  • Cheng-Wei Chiang, Takaaki Nomura, Joe Sato, Gauge-Higgs unification models in six dimensions with S 2/ 2S^2/\mathbb{Z}_2 extra space and GUT gauge symmetry (arXiv:1109.5835)

Created on August 29, 2019 at 06:57:33. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.