nLab Walecka model



Fields and quanta

fields and particles in particle physics

and in the standard model of particle physics:

force field gauge bosons

scalar bosons

matter field fermions (spinors, Dirac fields)

flavors of fundamental fermions in the
standard model of particle physics:
generation of fermions1st generation2nd generation3d generation
quarks (qq)
up-typeup quark (uu)charm quark (cc)top quark (tt)
down-typedown quark (dd)strange quark (ss)bottom quark (bb)
neutralelectron neutrinomuon neutrinotau neutrino
bound states:
mesonslight mesons:
pion (udu d)
ρ-meson (udu d)
ω-meson (udu d)
ϕ-meson (ss¯s \bar s),
kaon, K*-meson (usu s, dsd s)
eta-meson (uu+dd+ssu u + d d + s s)

charmed heavy mesons:
D-meson (uc u c, dcd c, scs c)
J/ψ-meson (cc¯c \bar c)
bottom heavy mesons:
B-meson (qbq b)
ϒ-meson (bb¯b \bar b)
proton (uud)(u u d)
neutron (udd)(u d d)

(also: antiparticles)

effective particles

hadrons (bound states of the above quarks)


in grand unified theory

minimally extended supersymmetric standard model




dark matter candidates


auxiliary fields



The Walecka model (also: QHD-I model) is an effective field theory related to chiral perturbation theory, that describes the residual strong nuclear force between baryons and specifically between nucleons, via exchange of sigma-mesons and omega-mesons, with the nucleons appearing as explicit effective fields (as opposed to emergent Skyrmion fields), as is more generally the case in baryon chiral perturbation theory. Some authors use the term quantum hadrodynamics specifically for the Walecka model of nuclear physics.

The inclusion also of pions and of rho-mesons into the Walecka model came to be known as quantum hadrodynamics, specifically QHD-II. See there for more.

effective field theories of nuclear physics, hence for confined-phase quantum chromodynamics:


Walecka hadrodynamics with nucleon fields

On quantum hadrodynamics (relativivist effective field theory of nuclear physics, coupling mesons and nucleons) in the sense of the Walecka model, hence with nucleons appearing as explicit fields (as opposed to being solitonic Skyrmions in the pion field as in chiral perturbation theory).


The original Walecka model (QHD-I model), with nucleons coupled to sigma-mesons and omega-mesons:

Inclusion into the Walecka model also of the pion and the rho-meson (the QHD-II model):

Further discussion of these models:

Further inclusion of electromagnetism (photon field):

  • A. Yu. Korchin, D. Van Neck, M. Waroquier, Electromagnetic interaction in chiral quantum hadrodynamics and decay of vector and axial-vector mesons, Phys. Rev. C67 (2003) 015207 (arXiv:nucl-th/0302042)

Relation to quark-meson coupling model:

  • Koichi Saito, Relationship between Quark-Meson Coupling Model and Quantum Hadrodynamics, Prog. Theor. Phys. 108 (2002) 609-614 (arXiv:nucl-th/0207053)

Hadrodynamics via Light-front QCD

On light-front QCD for quantum hadrodynamics:

Baryon chiral perturbation theory

Discussion of baryon chiral perturbation theory, i.e of chiral perturbation theory with explicit effective (as opposed to or in addition to implicit skyrmionic) baryon fields included (see also Walecka model and quantum hadrodynamics):


Original articles:

  • Elizabeth Jenkins, Aneesh V. Manohar, Baryon chiral perturbation theory using a heavy fermion lagrangian, Physics Letters B Volume 255, Issue 4, 21 February 1991, Pages 558-562 (doi:10.1016/0370-2693(91)90266-S)

  • Robert Baur, Joachim Kambor, Generalized Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory, Eur. Phys. J. C7:507-524, 1999 (arXiv:hep-ph/9803311)

Higher order terms:

See also:

  • Lisheng Geng, Recent developments in SU(3)SU(3) covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory, Front. Phys., 2013, 8(3): 328-348 (arXiv:1301.6815)

Last revised on May 17, 2020 at 09:03:18. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.