normed division algebra

Normed division algebras

Normed division algebras


A normed division algebra is a not-necessarily associative algebra, over some ground field, that is

  1. a division algebra (i.e.(ab=0)(a=0orb=0))\big( \text{i.e.}\, (a \cdot b = 0) \Rightarrow (a = 0 \,\text{or}\, b = 0) \big)

  2. a multiplicatively normed algebra (i.e.abCab)\big( \text{i.e.}\, {\Vert a \cdot b\Vert} \leq C \cdot {\Vert a\Vert} \cdot {\Vert b\Vert} \big).

It should be the case (at least maybe for finite-dimensional algebras) that the division property (1) implies that the norm property (2) holds in the stronger form

|ab|=|a||b| {\vert a \cdot b\vert} \;=\; {\vert a \vert} \cdot {\vert b \vert}

and this is how most (or all) authors actually define normed division algebras, and that’s what we assume to be meant now.


It turns out (Hurwitz' theorem) that over the real numbers there are precisely only four normed division algebras up to isomorphism: the algebras of

  1. real numbers,

  2. complex numbers,

  3. quaternions,

  4. octonions.

In this sense real normed division algebras may be thought of as a natural generalization of the real numbers and the complex numbers.

Moreover, if one regards the real numbers as a star-algebra with trivial anti-involution, then each step in the above sequence is given by applying the Cayley-Dickson construction. (While the process of applying the Cayley-Dickson construction continues, next with thesedenions, these and the following are no longer division algebras.)

This classification of real normed division algebras is closely related to various other systems of exceptional structures in mathematics and physics:

(Moreover, apparently these two items are not unrelated, see here.)


A normed division algebra is

While the norm in a Banach algebra is in general only submultiplicative (xyxy{\|x y\|} \leq {\|x\|} {\|y\|}), the norm in a normed division algebra must be multiplicative (xy=xy{\|x y\|} = {\|x\|} {\|y\|}). Accordingly, this norm is considered to be an absolute value and often written ||{|{-}|} instead of {\|{-}\|}. There is also a converse: if the norm on a Banach algebra is multiplicative (including 1=1{\|1\|} = 1), then it must be a division algebra. While the term ‘normed division algebra’ does not seem to include the completeness condition of a Banach algebra, in fact the only examples have finite dimension and are therefore complete.

Accordingly, a normed division algebras is in particular a division composition algebra.



Over the complex numbers, the only normed division algebra is the algebra of complex numbers themselves.

The Hurwitz theorem says that over the real numbers there are, up to isomorphism, exactly four finite-dimensonal normed division algebras :

In fact these are also exactly the real alternative division algebras:


The only division algebras over the real numbers which are also alternative algebras are the real numbers themselves, the complex numbers, the quaternions and the octonions.

(Zorn 30).

Each of these is produced from the previous one by the Cayley–Dickson construction; when applied to 𝕆\mathbb{O}, this construction produces the algebra of sedenions, which do not form a division algebra.

The Cayley–Dickson construction applies to an algebra with involution; by the abstract nonsense of that construction, we can see that the four normed division algebras above have these properties:

  • \mathbb{R} is associative, commutative, and with trivial involution,
  • \mathbb{C} is associative and commutative but has nontrivial involution,
  • \mathbb{H} is associative but noncommutative and with nontrivial involution,
  • 𝕆\mathbb{O} is neither associative, commutative, nor with trivial involution.

However, these algebras do all have some useful algebraic properties; in particular, they are all alternative (a weak version of associativity). They are also all composition algebras.

A normed field is a commutative normed division algebra; it follows from the preceding that the only normed fields over \mathbb{R} are \mathbb{R} and \mathbb{C} (e.g. Tornheim 52).

It is in fact true that all unital normed division algebras over \mathbb{R} are already finite dimensional, by (Urbanik-Wright 1960) (the authors give a reference on a non-unital infinite-dimensional normed division algebra). Hence the Hurwitz theorem together with Urbanik-Wright 1960 says that the above four exhaust all real normed division algebras.

For purely inseparable characteristic 2 field extensions one can apparently get infinite-dimensional examples; see this MathOverflow answer for reference.


The automorphism groups of the real normed division algebras, as normed algebras, are

Relation to H-space structures on sphere (Hopf invariant one)

The Hopf invariant one theorem says that the spheres carrying H-space structure are precisely the unit spheres in one of the normed division algebras

(Adams 60)

Magic square

The Freudenthal magic square is a special square array of Lie algebras/Lie groups labeled by pairs of real normed division algebras and including all the exceptional Lie groups except G2.

exceptional spinors and real normed division algebras

AA\phantom{AA}spin groupnormed division algebra\,\, brane scan entry
3=2+13 = 2+1Spin(2,1)SL(2,)Spin(2,1) \simeq SL(2,\mathbb{R})A\phantom{A} \mathbb{R} the real numberssuper 1-brane in 3d
4=3+14 = 3+1Spin(3,1)SL(2,)Spin(3,1) \simeq SL(2, \mathbb{C})A\phantom{A} \mathbb{C} the complex numberssuper 2-brane in 4d
6=5+16 = 5+1Spin(5,1)SL(2,)Spin(5,1) \simeq SL(2, \mathbb{H})A\phantom{A} \mathbb{H} the quaternionslittle string
10=9+110 = 9+1Spin(9,1)"SL(2,𝕆)"Spin(9,1) {\simeq} \text{"}SL(2,\mathbb{O})\text{"}A\phantom{A} 𝕆\mathbb{O} the octonionsheterotic/type II string
\div> see division algebra and supersymmetry
normed division algebra𝔸\mathbb{A}Riemannian 𝔸\mathbb{A}-manifoldsSpecial Riemannian 𝔸\mathbb{A}-manifolds
real numbers\mathbb{R}Riemannian manifoldoriented Riemannian manifold
complex numbers\mathbb{C}Kähler manifoldCalabi-Yau manifold
quaternions\mathbb{H}quaternion-Kähler manifoldhyperkähler manifold

(Leung 02)

Last revised on December 3, 2018 at 02:31:14. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.