The $\mathbb{Z}_2$-orbifold/higher orientifold fixed point in Hořava-Witten theory might be called it O9-plane but is often called the M9-brane (e.g. GKSTY 02, section 3, Moore-Peradze-Saulina 04), even though it is on a different conceptual footing than the genuine M2-brane and M5-brane.
Hull 1997, pages 8-9 argued that the M9-brane is the object whose charge is the Poincaré dual to the time-component of the M2-brane charge as it appears in the M-theory super Lie algebra via
(Analogously, the time component of the M5-brane charge is argued to be dual to the charge of the KK-monopole, see there.)
Under the duality between M-theory and type IIA string theory the M9-brane may be identified with the O8-plane:
from GKSTY 02, section 3
This may be used to understand the gauge enhancement to E8-gauge groups at the heterotic boundary of Horava-Witten theory:
from GKSTY 02, section 3
Table of branes appearing in supergravity/string theory (for classification see at brane scan).
Early discussion of the possibility of a kind of 9-brane in 11d supergravity:
Mike J. Duff, p. 28 of: Supermembranes, TASI lectures (1996) [arXiv:hep-th/9611203]
Paul S. Howe, Ergin Sezgin, p. 9 in: Superbranes, Phys. Lett. B 390 (1997) 133-142 [arXiv:hep-th/9607227, doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01416-5]
Mees de Roo, p. 5 of: Intersecting branes and Supersymmetry, in: Supersymmetry and Quantum Field Theory, Proceedings of the D. Volkov Memorial Seminar Held in Kharkov, Ukraine, 5–7 January 1997, Springer (1998) [arXiv:hep-th/9703124, doi:10.1007/BFb0105225]
Chris Hull, Gravitational Duality, Branes and Charges, Nucl. Phys. B 509 (1998) 216-251 [arXiv:hep-th/9705162, doi:10.1016/S0550-3213(97)00501-4]
On M9-branes (and apparently introducing that terminology) as lifts of the D8-branes in massive type IIA string theory:
Eric Bergshoeff, Yolanda Lozano, Tomas Ortin, (4.8) in: Massive Branes, Nucl. Phys. B 518 (1998) 363-423 [arXiv:hep-th/9712115, doi:10.1016/S0550-3213(98)00045-5]
Eric Bergshoeff, Jan Pieter van der Schaar, On M-9-branes, Class. Quant. Grav. 16 (1999) 23-39 [arXiv:hep-th/9806069, doi:10.1088/0264-9381/16/1/002]
Further discussion:
A proposal for a description of the M9 as an higher WZW theory is in
Discussion of how the M2-brane and the M5-brane may arise from this by tachyon condensation is in
Discussion of the M9 as the dual in Horava-Witten theory of O8-planes in type II string theory is in
see also at Intersection of D6s with O8s
Cohomological discussion of ninebrane structures is in
See also
Paul Howe, A. Kaya, Ergin Sezgin, P. Sundell, Codimension One Branes (arXiv:hep-th/0001169)
Gregory Moore, Grigor Peradze, Natalia Saulina, Instabilities in heterotic M-theory induced by open membrane instantons, Nucl.Phys. B607 (2001) 117-154 (arXiv:hep-th/0012104)
Takeshi Sato, On M-9-branes and their dimensional reductions, Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl. 102 (2001) 107-112 (arXiv:hep-th/0102084)
Discussion of open M5-branes ending on the M9-brane is in
Discussion as exotic branes in exceptional field theory:
p. 109: “conjectured M9-brane which should more properly be called M8-brane.”
David S. Berman, Edvard T. Musaev, Ray Otsuki, Exotic Branes in Exceptional Field Theory: $E_{7(7)}$ and Beyond, J. High Energ. Phys. 2018 53 (2018) [arXiv:1806.00430, doi:10.1007/JHEP12(2018)053]
Berman, Musaev & Otsuki (2018), p. 65: “However, as remarked in 1, [the M9 brane] should more properly be called an M8-brane or perhaps KK8 following its mass formula designation 8(1,0). It is, perhaps, to be understood as an object that exists only as a lift of the D8-brane of Type IIA.”
Last revised on September 15, 2024 at 08:18:24. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.