nLab
smooth infinity-groupoid

Context

Cohesive \infty-Toposes

cohesive topos

cohesive (∞,1)-topos

cohesive homotopy type theory

Backround

Definition

Presentation over a site

Structures in a cohesive (,1)(\infty,1)-topos

structures in a cohesive (∞,1)-topos

Structures with infinitesimal cohesion

infinitesimal cohesion?

Models

Differential geometry

synthetic differential geometry

Introductions

from point-set topology to differentiable manifolds

geometry of physics: coordinate systems, smooth spaces, manifolds, smooth homotopy types, supergeometry

Differentials

V-manifolds

smooth space

Tangency

The magic algebraic facts

Theorems

Axiomatics

cohesion

  • (shape modality \dashv flat modality \dashv sharp modality)

    (ʃ)(ʃ \dashv \flat \dashv \sharp )

  • dR-shape modality\dashv dR-flat modality

    ʃ dR dRʃ_{dR} \dashv \flat_{dR}

  • tangent cohesion

    • differential cohomology diagram
    • differential cohesion

      • (reduction modality \dashv infinitesimal shape modality \dashv infinitesimal flat modality)

        (&)(\Re \dashv \Im \dashv \&)

      • graded differential cohesion

        • fermionic modality\dashv bosonic modality \dashv rheonomy modality

          (Rh)(\rightrightarrows \dashv \rightsquigarrow \dashv Rh)

        • id id fermionic bosonic bosonic Rh rheonomic reduced infinitesimal infinitesimal & étale cohesive ʃ discrete discrete continuous *

          \array{ && id &\dashv& id \ && \vee && \vee \ &\stackrel{fermionic}{}& \rightrightarrows &\dashv& \rightsquigarrow & \stackrel{bosonic}{} \ && \bot && \bot \ &\stackrel{bosonic}{} & \rightsquigarrow &\dashv& Rh & \stackrel{rheonomic}{} \ && \vee && \vee \ &\stackrel{reduced}{} & \Re &\dashv& \Im & \stackrel{infinitesimal}{} \ && \bot && \bot \ &\stackrel{infinitesimal}{}& \Im &\dashv& \& & \stackrel{\text{étale}}{} \ && \vee && \vee \ &\stackrel{cohesive}{}& ʃ &\dashv& \flat & \stackrel{discrete}{} \ && \bot && \bot \ &\stackrel{discrete}{}& \flat &\dashv& \sharp & \stackrel{continuous}{} \ && \vee && \vee \ && \emptyset &\dashv& \ast }

          </semantics></math></div>

          Models

          Lie theory, ∞-Lie theory

          differential equations, variational calculus

          Chern-Weil theory, ∞-Chern-Weil theory

          Cartan geometry (super, higher)

          \infty-Lie theory

          ∞-Lie theory (higher geometry)

          Background

          Smooth structure

          Higher groupoids

          Lie theory

          ∞-Lie groupoids

          ∞-Lie algebroids

          Formal Lie groupoids

          Cohomology

          Homotopy

          Examples

          \infty-Lie groupoids

          \infty-Lie groups

          \infty-Lie algebroids

          \infty-Lie algebras

          Contents

          Idea

          A smooth \infty-groupoid is an ∞-groupoid equipped with cohesion in the form of smooth structure. Examples include smooth manifolds, Lie groups, Lie groupoids and generally Lie infinity-groupoids, but also for instance moduli spaces of differential forms, moduli stacks of principal connections and generally of cocycles in differential cohomology.

          The (∞,1)-topos SmoothGrpdSmooth \infty Grpd of all smooth \infty-groupoids is a cohesive (∞,1)-topos. It realizes a higher geometry version of differential geometry.

          Many properties of smooth \infty-groupoids are inherited from the underlying Euclidean-topological ∞-groupoids. See ETop∞Grpd for more.

          There is a refinement of smooth \infty-groupoids to synthetic differential ∞-groupoids. See SynthDiff∞Grpd for more on that.

          Definition

          Definition

          For XX a smooth manifold, say an open cover {U iX}\{U_i \to X\} is a differentiably good open cover if each non-empty finite intersection of the U iU_i is diffeomorphic to a Cartesian space.

          Proposition

          Every paracompact smooth manifold admits a differentiably good open cover.

          Proof

          This is a folk theorem. A detailed proof is at good open cover.

          Definition

          Let SmoothMfd be the large site of paracompact smooth manifolds with smooth functions between them and equipped with the coverage of differentiably good open covers.

          Observation

          This does indeed define a coverage. The Grothendieck topology that is generated from it is the standard open cover topology.

          Proof

          For {U iX}\{U_i \to X\} any open cover of a paracompact manifold also iU i\coprod_i U_i is paracompact. Hence we may find a differentiably good open cover {K j iU i}\{K_j \to \coprod_i U_i\}. This is then a refinement of the original open cover of XX.

          Definition

          Let CartSp smooth{}_{smooth} be the site of Cartesian spaces with smooth functions between them and equipped with the coverage of differentiably good open covers.

          Definition

          The (∞,1)-topos of smooth \infty-groupoids is the (∞,1)-category of (∞,1)-sheaves on CartSp smooth{}_{smooth}:

          SmoothGrpd:=Sh (,1)(CartSp smooth). Smooth \infty Grpd := Sh_{(\infty,1)}(CartSp_{smooth}) \,.

          Properties

          Cohesion

          Proposition

          SmoothGrpdSmooth \infty Grpd is a cohesive (∞,1)-topos.

          Proof

          The site CartSp smooth{}_{smooth} is (as discussed there) an ∞-cohesive site. See there for the implication.

          Definition

          Let SmoothMfd be the large site of paracompact smooth manifolds with smooth functions between them and equipped with the coverage whose covering families are differentiably good open covers : open covers {U iU}\{U_i \to U\} where each non-empty open intersection is diffeomorphic to a Cartesian space.

          Proposition

          This does indeed define a coverage and the Grothendieck topology generated by it is the standard open cover topology.

          Proof

          This is discussed in detail at good open cover.

          Proposition

          The (∞,1)-topos SmoothGrpdSmooth \infty Grpd is equivalent to the hypercompletion Sh^ (,1)(SmoothMfd)\hat Sh_{(\infty,1)}(SmoothMfd) of the (∞,1)-category of (∞,1)-sheaves on the large site SmoothMfd

          SmoothGrpdSh^ (,1)(SmoothMfd). Smooth \infty Grpd \simeq \hat Sh_{(\infty,1)}(SmoothMfd) \,.
          Proof

          By the above we have that CartSp smooth{}_{smooth} is a dense sub-site of SmoothMfd. With this the claim follows as in the analogous discussion at ETop∞Grpd.

          Corollary

          The canonical embedding of smooth manifolds as 0-truncated objects in SmoothGrpdSmooth\infty Grpd is a full and faithful (∞,1)-functor

          SmoothMfdSmoothGrpd,. SmoothMfd \hookrightarrow Smooth \infty Grpd ,.

          Relative cohesion

          We discuss the relation of SmoothGrpdSmooth\infty Grpd to other cohesive (∞,1)-toposes.

          Continuous cohesion

          The cohesive (∞,1)-topos ETop∞Grpd of Euclidean-topological ∞-groupoids has as site of definition CartSp top{}_{top}. There is a canonical forgetful functor

          i:CartSp smoothCartSp top i : CartSp_{smooth} \to CartSp_{top}
          Proposition

          The functor ii extends to an essential (∞,1)-geometric morphism

          (i !i *i *):SmoothGrpdi *i *i !ETopGrpd (i_! \dashv i^* \dashv i_*) : Smooth\infty Grpd \stackrel{\overset{i_!}{\to}}{\stackrel{\overset{i^*}{\leftarrow}}{\underset{i_*}{\to}}} ETop\infty Grpd

          such that the (∞,1)-Yoneda embedding is factored through the induced inclusion SmoothMfd i\stackrel{i}{\hookrightarrow} Mfd as

          SmoothMfd SmoothGrpd i i ! Mfd ETopGrpd \array{ SmoothMfd &\hookrightarrow& Smooth\infty Grpd \\ \downarrow^{\mathrlap{i}} && \downarrow^{\mathrlap{i_!}} \\ Mfd &\hookrightarrow& ETop\infty Grpd } \,
          Proof

          Using the observation that ii preserves coverings and pullbacks along morphism in covering families, the proof follows precisely the steps of the proof of this proposition.

          (Both of these are special cases of a general statement about morphisms of (∞,1)-sites, which should eventually be stated in full generality somewhere).

          Corollary

          The essential global section (∞,1)-geometric morphism of SmoothGrpdSmooth \infty Grpd factors through that of ETop∞Grpd

          (Π SmoothDisc SmoothΓ Smooth):SmoothGrpdi *i *i !ETopGrpdΓ ETopDisc ETopΠ ETopGrpd (\Pi_{Smooth} \dashv Disc_{Smooth} \dashv \Gamma_{Smooth}) : Smooth \infty Grpd \stackrel{\overset{i_!}{\to}}{\stackrel{\overset{i^*}{\leftarrow}}{\underset{i_*}{\to}}} ETop\infty Grpd \stackrel{\overset{\Pi_{ETop}}{\to}}{\stackrel{\overset{Disc_{ETop}}{\leftarrow}}{\underset{\Gamma_{ETop}}{\to}}} \infty Grpd
          Proof

          This follows from the essential uniqueness of the global section (∞,1)-geometric morphism and of adjoint (∞,1)-functors.

          Observation

          The functor i !i_! here is the forgetful functor that forgets smooth structure and only remembers Euclidean topology-structure.

          Infinitesimal cohesion

          Observe that CartSp smooth{}_{smooth} is (the syntactic category of) a Lawvere theory: the algebraic theory of smooth algebras (C C^\infty-rings). Write SmoothAlg:=Alg(C)SmoothAlg := Alg(C) for the category of its algebras. Let InfPointSmoothAlg opInfPoint \hookrightarrow SmoothAlg^{op} be the full subcategory on the infinitesimally thickened points.

          Definition

          Let CartSp synthdiffSmoothAlg op{}_{synthdiff} \hookrightarrow SmoothAlg^{op} be the full subcategory on the objects of the form U×DU \times D with DCartSp smoothSmoothAlg opD \in CartSp_{smooth} \hookrightarrow SmoothAlg^{op} and DInfPointSmoothAlg opD \in InfPoint \hookrightarrow SmoothAlg^{op}. Write

          i:CartSp smoothCartSp synthdiff i : CartSp_{smooth} \hookrightarrow CartSp_{synthdiff}

          for the canonical inclusion.

          Proposition

          The inclusion exhibits an infinitesimal cohesive neighbourhood of SmoothGrpdSmooth \infty Grpd

          (i !i *i *i !):SmoothGrpdSynthDiffGrpd, (i_! \dashv i^* \dashv i_* \dashv i^!) : Smooth \infty Grpd \hookrightarrow SynthDiff\infty Grpd \,,

          where SynthDiff∞Grpd is the cohesive (∞,1)-topos of synthetic differential ∞-groupoids: the (∞,1)-category of (∞,1)-sheaves over CartSp synthdiffCartSp_{synthdiff}.

          Proof

          This follows as a special case of this proposition after observing that CartSp synthdiffCartSp_{synthdiff} is an infinitesimal neighbourhood site of CartSp smoothCartSp_{smooth} in the sense defined there.

          In SynthDiff∞Grpd we have ∞-Lie algebras and ∞-Lie algebroids as actual infinitesimal objects. See there for more details.

          Truncations

          The (1,1)-topos on the 0-truncated smooth \infty-groupoids is

          Sh(CartSp)SmoothGrpd 0SmoothGrpd, Sh(CartSp) \simeq Smooth \infty Grpd_{\leq 0} \hookrightarrow Smooth\infty Grpd \,,

          the sheaf topos on SmthMfd/CartSp discussed at smooth space.

          The concrete objects in there

          SmoothGrpd 0 concSmoothGrpd Smooth\infty Grpd_{\leq 0}^{conc} \hookrightarrow Smooth \infty Grpd

          are precisely the diffeological spaces.

          Structures in the cohesive (,1)(\infty,1)-topos SmoothGrpdSmooth \infty Grpd

          We discuss the general abstract structures in a cohesive (∞,1)-topos realized in SmoothGrpdSmooth \infty Grpd.

          This section is at

          geometries of physics

          A\phantom{A}(higher) geometryA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}siteA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}sheaf toposA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}∞-sheaf ∞-toposA\phantom{A}
          A\phantom{A}discrete geometryA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}PointA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}SetA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}Discrete∞GrpdA\phantom{A}
          A\phantom{A}differential geometryA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}CartSpA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}SmoothSetA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}Smooth∞GrpdA\phantom{A}
          A\phantom{A}formal geometryA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}FormalCartSpA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}FormalSmoothSetA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}FormalSmooth∞GrpdA\phantom{A}
          A\phantom{A}supergeometryA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}SuperFormalCartSpA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}SuperFormalSmoothSetA\phantom{A}A\phantom{A}SuperFormalSmooth∞GrpdA\phantom{A}

          Smooth \infty-groupoids and related cohesive structures play a central role in the discussion at

          References

          For standard references on differential geometry and Lie groupoids see there.

          The (,1)(\infty,1)-topos SmoothGrpdSmooth \infty Grpd is discussed in section 3.3 of

          A discussion of smooth \infty-groupoids as (,1)(\infty,1)-sheaves on CartSpCartSp and the presentaton of the \infty-Chern-Weil homomorphism on these is in

          For references on Chern-Weil theory in Smooth∞Grpd and connection on a smooth principal ∞-bundle, see there.

          The results on differentiable Lie group cohomology used above are in

          • P. Blanc, Cohomologie différentiable et changement de groupes Astérisque, vol. 124-125 (1985), pp. 113-130.

          and

          which parallels

          • Graeme Segal, Cohomology of topological groups , Symposia Mathematica, Vol IV (1970) (1986?) p. 377

          A review is in section 4 of

          Classification of topological principal 2-bundles is discussed in

          and the generalization to classification of smooth principal 2-bundles is in

          Further discussion of the shape modality on smooth \infty-groupoids is in

          Last revised on August 1, 2018 at 18:31:01. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.